Bonus–malus systems with different claim types and varying deductibles

Olena Ragulina


The paper deals with bonus–malus systems with different claim types and varying deductibles. The premium relativities are softened for the policyholders who are in the malus zone and these policyholders are subject to per claim deductibles depending on their levels in the bonus–malus scale and the types of the reported claims. We introduce such bonus–malus systems and study their basic properties. In particular, we investigate when it is possible to introduce varying deductibles, what restrictions we have and how we can do this. Moreover, we deal with the special case where varying deductibles are applied to the claims reported by policyholders occupying the highest level in the bonus–malus scale and consider two allocation principles for the deductibles. Finally, numerical illustrations are presented.


Bonus–malus system; claim type; varying deductible; indifference principle; allocation principle; premium relativity; Markov chain; transition matrix; stationary distribution

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